Production methods of architectural models – Talking about usage of wood
Architectural models made by Canyon
1. Woodwork board
Woodwork board has various colors, graininess and thicknesses, with a size of about 100㎝×10㎝and a thickness of 1～５㎜. They can be sold in rolls. To meet amateurs’ needs, remaining thick wood after undergoing woodwork will be sold in wood stores. When buying woodwork boards, you’d better have them cut into blocks and strips at the store, in this way, we don’t need to spend too much time and energy in the following processing. Household handicraft stores also provide completed wood shapes, wood nails and rods, wood balls, etc.
For wood-based products, especially important supporting beams, we shall not only consider their ruggedness but also their weight. Compared with woodwork boards or hollow plywood, veneers and hard fiberboards have higher density and weight.
Leveling board for woodwork has a thickness range of 13～45㎜, with a length of 1830㎜ and a width of 510㎜, its center made of closely-placed leveling wooden sticks, with plywood-based thin film covering on both sides.
Core board is a splice board, with its core spliced by small battens and two sides glued with two layers of plywood. Core board is sturdy and durable, with leveling board, structural stability and not easy to cause deformation. It is widely used as the material for making panel-type furniture components, and usually used to make the surface of internal supports or flat models during the production of large-scale models. Core board’s specification and dimension have no uniform national standards, with commonly used thickness of 16㎜ and 19㎜, and common size of 1220㎜×2440㎜.
Plywood is an artificial board formed after the veneer undergoing gumming and hot pressing, and the veneer is made of three or more layers in a manner of planing or rotary cutting. Each veneer’s fiber direction is mutually perpendicular (or forms a certain angle) and symmetric, which overcomes wood’s anisotropy defect. One layer has a thickness range of 0.2㎜~6㎜, and the whole leveling board’s thickness ranges from 0.4㎜, 0.6㎜, 0.8㎜ to 1㎜, and aircraft plywood thickness can reach 15mm, with a length of 305㎜, width ranging from 100㎜, 122㎜ to 152.5㎜.
Plywood is applicable to make large plate parts, mainly used to make model base, and can also be used as surface and internal supporting materials for furniture, ships and vehicles, etc. Plywood has many kinds, e.g. common plywood with a thickness below 12mm. For example, beech grain boards, rosewood grain boards and oak grain boards, which can be chosen according to the design requirements. Plywood has a width size of 1220㎜×2440㎜.
3. Hard board (density board, particle board)
Hard board is a board formed by processing wood waste into shredded wood with a certain specification which will later undergo shaving and hot pressing with adhesive. Hard board has a large breadth, with flat surface, good thermal insulation and sound insulation property. Its vertical and horizontal faces have the same strength, convenient for processing, and its surface can also be decorated in various forms. Hard board is an ideal material for making panel-type furniture models. Because of its fine and smooth cross section, cutting and shaving become convenient after mutual superposition and gluing of boards, and thus it is easy to process leveling unidirectional curved surfaces. But hard board is easy to cause expansive deformation after being affected with damp, and therefore models made of it need to be sealed with paint to prevent damp. Besides, hard board also has heavy weight and poor nail-holding ability.
Hard board has many kinds and can be divided into low-density particle board, medium low-density particle board, medium-density particle board and high-density particle board according to its capacity. Hard board property does not only depend on its texture but also depend on its processing method and technological process. Therefore, particle board shall be chosen according to specific product shaping requirements. At present, medium-density particle board is commonly used in model making. Hard board has a width size of 1220㎜×2440㎜.
4. Cork board
Cork board is composed of particles mixed with synthetic resin adhesive. Cork board has loose structure and thus it seems a little soft, and its weight is only 1/2 that of the hard board (about 10.95㎏). Cork board can be purchased in auto parts stores, with a leveling board size of 400㎜×750㎜, and thickness of 1～5㎝. Cork board is easy to process, non-poisonous, noiseless, and easy to produce. Models made of cork board have special texture. If one cork board is not thick enough, we can splice multiple cork boards to meet the thickness requirement. During processing, scalpel or paper knife can be used for one layer of cork board, and sweep saw and manual wire saw can be used for multiple layers of cork boards. We must pay attention to its structure when using cork board, because if its particles are too rough, it will hamper its utilization. Cork board used in scientific and technological practice (such as sealing materials or authentic materials for automobile making) or medical science is an ideal material for model making.
5. Aircraft model board
Aircraft model board is a board made of wood with no high-density (mainly paulownia wood) after undergoing chemical treatment. Because it has fine texture and has undergone chemical treatment, the cutting parts, no matter cutting along or perpendicular to the woody texture, will never crack, as long as using proper tools and methods. Besides, because model production is now conducted by using laser engraving machine, the surface pattern is more exquisite, and all strange shapes can also be cut handily. At present, quality of aircraft model board imported from Canada is obviously higher than that of domestic ones. Its advantages: fine texture, stiff and smooth, clear grains, full of natural expressiveness, easy to process; disadvantages: strong moisture absorption, easy to deform, hard to process in details.
6. Other artificial decorative board
At present, with the development of production technologies, various decorative boards have been pushed to the market. Decorative boards which can be used for model making include imitating metal boards, imitating plastic board, imitating fabric board and imitating stone board, as well as many decorative wood veneers for pasting. Imitating metal board mainly refers to aluminum-plastic board. Plated with metallic paint, it can imitate aluminum bronze and stainless steel effect. The surface material can be divided into matte and bright kinds. Imitating plastic board mainly refers to fireproof board and other board with plastic effect. These boards can be chosen according to the design effect. These materials can be purchased in domestic market of decorative materials. They have relatively good effects if properly used during model processing.
Architectural models made by Canyon